The new deal reportedly jettisons environmental obligations that were part of the last four U.S. trade deals.
Canadian oil producers will lose an estimated $15.8 billion this year in foregone revenues compared to other producers.
The Court also mentioned the potential impact of oil tankers on killer whales.
The total spill volume from 2004 to 2017 equaled an estimated 0.00003 per cent of hydrocarbons moved through the four analyzed pipelines.
According to the PBO, provincial cooperation with the federal carbon floor may reduce the size of Canada's economy by 0.5 per cent in 2020.
Most other OECD countries have milder climates and higher population densities, which results in lower energy needs.
Without adequate access to pipelines—the cheaper and safer mode of transportation—there has been a shift to more crude-by-rail.
Price controls led to long lineups and dry tanks at gas stations.
PBO report contradicts Trudeau government claims.
Like all taxes, a carbon tax imposes its own burdens and amplifies the economic costs of all other taxes in the economy.
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