With just 2.6 physicians per thousand people in 2017, Canada ranked 26th out of 28 universal health-care systems.
Other universal health-care countries including France, Japan and Sweden practise cost-sharing.
Economic theory and common sense tell us that financial incentives influence peoples behavior. This is as true for the local barber as it is for doctors. Although some may believe in the romantic fallacy that doctors are altruistic actors, or bound to act in favor of their patients by the Hippocratic Oath, empirical evidence shows us that they too, are influenced by money.