Peter Munk Centre for Free Enterprise Education
Brooklyn is as populous as Toronto but less than a third as large geographically.
Across the Greater Golden Horseshoe it takes an average of 18 months to obtain a building permit.
Historically low interest rates have enabled families to more than double their mortgage borrowing power since 2000.
In 2016, average rents in Montreal were $835 a month compared to $1,242 in Toronto and just under $1,300 in Vancouver.
Between 2011 and 2016, the city gained more than 116,000 new residents.