Sir John A. Macdonald’s Tories in 1867 are the only other party to form government after receiving less than 35 per cent of the popular vote.
The oil price differential is largely due to Canada’s lack of transportation capacity and restricted market access.
The federal government expects the deficit in 2018-19 to reach $18.1 billion and grow next year to $19.6 billion.
One reason for a federation is to pursue different approaches to policy.
The Court also mentioned the potential impact of oil tankers on killer whales.