Physicians who set their own fees determine the level of patient co-payment.
Dutch residents must purchase a standard insurance package from one of several private insurers.
In Sweden, patients usually pay a nominal fee for family doctor appointments.
The French health-care system features several safety nets to protect vulnerable patients.
Outpatient pharmaceuticals in Belgium are usually partially reimbursed through a third-party payer scheme.
Australian patients can choose to be treated in hospital as either a public or private patient.
Canada ranked last on the timeliness of both specialist and elective surgical care.
In most universal health-care systems, patients share the cost of care through deductibles, co-insurance and co-payments.
The vast majority of universal health-care systems worldwide employ some form of cost-sharing.
Hospitals in Switzerland compete with one another for patients.