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How Albertans Continue to Keep Federal Finances Afloat

How Albertans Continue to keep Federal Finances Afloat finds that the federal government’s deficit in 2017 would have reached a staggering $39 billion—instead of the $19 billion actually recorded—if not for the disproportionate net revenue contributions from Alberta. In fact, between 2014 and 2017, even at the depths of Alberta’s recession, the province sent Ottawa $92 billion more than it received in federal transfer payments and services. During the same period, Quebec received $71.9 billion more in federal transfers than it contributed to Ottawa.

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Investment in the Canadian and U.S. Oil and Gas Sectors: A Tale of Diverging Fortunes

Investment in the Canadian and U.S. Oil and Gas Sectors: A Tale of Diverging Fortunes finds that from 2016 to 2018, capital investment in Canada’s upstream oil and gas industry (essentially, exploration and production) increased only 15 per cent compared to 41 per cent in the U.S. over the same period. And, the percentage of oil and gas capital investment in Canada as a share of total capital investment has plummeted, from 28 per cent in 2014 to 13.9 per cent in 2018.

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Report Card on Ontario's Secondary Schools 2019

Report Card on Ontario’s Secondary Schools, 2019 ranks 738 anglophone and francophone public and Catholic secondary schools (and a small number of independent and First Nations schools) on nine academic indicators derived from annual provincewide reading, writing and math tests.

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Assessing the Duty to Consult

Assessing the Duty to Consult finds that the constitutional obligation known as the duty to consult creates uncertainty for resource development projects because the specific requirements for consultation are currently determined on a case by case basis. The federal government could provide greater certainty for major resource development projects—such as pipelines—by establishing clear consultation guidelines and recognizing Indigenous property rights.

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The Cost of Pipeline Constraints in Canada, 2019 finds that a lack of pipeline capacity in Canada is driving down the price of Canadian oil and cost the country’s energy sector C$20.6 billion in foregone revenues last year, even after adjusting for quality differences and transportation costs. In fact, the revenue loss in 2018 nearly eclipsed the amount for the previous five years combined (2013 to 2017) when Canada’s pipeline shortage cost our energy sector $20.7 billion.

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Tax Complexity in 2019: Can It be Tamed?

Tax Complexity in 2019: Can It be Tamed? finds that Canadians face a significantly more complicated tax system than existed just a few decades ago. For example, from 1990 and 2018, the text area of the actual Income Tax Act and related regulations increased by 72 per cent, from 974,050 cm² to 1,673,802 cm². The number of pages in the Act increased by two per cent, and page size increased by 69 per cent (from 354 cm² to 598 cm²). Research has shown that a complicated tax system imposes additional compliance costs on businesses and families, and higher administration costs on government.

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Examining Federal Debt in Canada by Prime Minister Since Confederation

Examining Federal Debt in Canada by Prime Minister Since Confederation finds that by the end of his first term later this year, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau will have increased federal debt by 5.6 per cent per person—the largest increase of any prime minister in Canadian history who didn’t govern during a world war or recession. By contrast, other recent Liberal prime ministers such as Jean Chrétien, Paul Martin and Lester Pearson who also never governed during a world war or recession all cut per-person debt—Chrétien by 13 per cent, Martin by 8 per cent and Pearson by 6 per cent.

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A Turning Point or More of the Same? Ontario's Fiscal Choices in Budget 2019

A Turning Point or More of the Same? Ontario's Fiscal Choices in Budget 2019 finds that the Ontario provincial government could balance the budget by 2020/21 with a one per cent reduction in program spending in each of the next two years. A 9.8 per cent reduction over the next two years would not only achieve balance, but would also allow the government to lower taxes and increase tax competitiveness.