The total spill volume from 2004 to 2017 equaled an estimated 0.00003 per cent of hydrocarbons moved through the four analyzed pipelines.
Asia’s demand for oil will increase to an estimated 6.6 million barrels per day in 2040.
Pipelines are 2.5 times safer than rail transport.
The proposed Enbridge Line 3 pipeline would carry 760,000 barrels per day from Alberta to Wisconsin.
B.C.’s NDP government is blocking the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion.
The oil price and volume of production drive the Alberta and Saskatchewan crude oil royalty formulas.